LOSA - Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA) Training
+44 (0)1276 855 412


We help to build an effective aviation LOSA capability to underpin your safety  management system performance

Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA) is an important way to help develop countermeasures to operational errors. It involves a structured programme of observation of front line activities built around the Threat and Error Management (TEM) concept.

It aims to identify threats to operational safety, identify and minimise the risks which are the origin of such threats and implement measures to manage the human error aspects of the residual risk. LOSA provides a way to assess the level of organisational resilience to systemic threats in accordance with the principles of a data-driven approach.

LOSA uses trained observers to collect data about pilot behaviour and its situational context on ‘normal’ flights from sitting on the flight deck. Such monitoring allows the capture of data which can characterise pilot strategies for managing ‘threats, errors and undesirable states’. The audits are conducted under strict no-jeopardy conditions, meaning that flight crews are not held accountable for their actions or errors that are observed. During flights that are being audited, observers record and code:

  • Potential threats to safety
  • How the threats are addressed
  • The errors such threats generate
  • How flight crews manage these errors
  • Specific behaviours that have been known to be associated with accidents and incidents

Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA) is a proactive means of collecting safety data to enhance safe operations and airworthy aircraft. LOSA is an important additional element that supports an effective Safety Management System.*

Challenges you might be facing

  • Establishing an effective corporate LOSA programme and needing to provide clear active safety leadership
  • Disseminating LOSA results, information, and promotional material to the flight crew
  • Writing or updating your LOSA Manual
  • Ensuring that agreed remedial action plans are effective, measured and robust
  • Ensuring that LOSA Observers have the correct accountabilities and responsibilities, are able to meet the selection criteria and are adequately and appropriately trained
  • Advising your Accountable Manager and Divisional Heads on the results of the LOSA observations and ensuring appropriate actions are understood and implemented

How we can help

  • Through competence and skills development training we can improve your understanding of LOSA and how it contributes to effective safety management in your organisation
  • We can help create an appropriate LOSA programme that is fit for purpose for your organisation, writing a supporting LOSA manual and supporting documentation, identifying skills and training needs and providing leadership coaching to help you influence key stakeholders across your organisation
  • We can advise on and draft suitable terms of reference (TORs) for the role of a LOSA manager to ensure your LOSA programme delivers maximum benefit into your organisation

Benefits of an effective LOSA programme

LOSA reports aid management teams to continually improve their safety management system to better support safe operations. We can help you ensure your LOSA programme is fit for purpose and helps you to:

  • Identify strengths and weaknesses of an organisation’s procedures
  • Detect and measure unsafe acts such as operational drift away from standard operating procedures (SOPs) – such as crew short cuts and workarounds
  • Identify problems with procedures
  • Identify design issues in the man /machine interface of the aircraft
  • Identify events which could lead to unsafe situations and aircraft states
  • Enable the observer to note how the crew deals with threats and errors under pressure.


*Introductory text courtesy of Skybrary – www.skybrary.aero